The SURPAC “Lite” Module Applications
Coordinate File Editing
 Defining the Coordinate File System using a variety of World Systems, e.g. Southern African “Lo” Grid Systems (Clarke 1880 (Modified) Ellipsoid)
 South African “WG” Grid System (WGS 84 Ellipsoid)
 Namibian “Bessel” System (Bessel 1841 Ellipsoid (GL Metres and Int. Metres)
 U.K. National Grid System, OSGB36, (Airy 1830 Ellipsoid)
 U.K. National GPS Network, ETRS89, (WGS 84 (GRS80) Ellipsoid)
 Irish National Grid (Airy 1830 (Modified) Ellipsoid)
 Universal Transverse Mercator, UTM, (Various Ellipsoids)
 Coordinate axes are automatically designated as [Y, X, Z], or [E, N, H]
 Data in a Coordinate File consist of : Point Number,
 Point Y – ordinate (or Easting),
 Point X – ordinate (or Northing),
 Point Peg Height,
 Point Auxiliary Height
 Point Description,
 Point Field Book Page number
 Point Calculation Page number
 Manual Adding/Editing/Deletion of Points
 Importing of Point Coordinate Data from : ASCII [Y, X, Z] Files (various formats)
 ASCII [Latitude, Longitude] Files (various formats)
 DXF Files
 Other SURPAC Coordinate Files
 A wide range of Electronic Loggers and Total Stations (Direct download, or from ASCII File)
 The currently supported Total Stations and/or Electronic Loggers are : The Psion Organiser using the “HandiData Solutions Booker Ver 5.1” software,
 The Psion Workabout, using the “HandiData Solutions Booker Ver 6.1”, or higher,
 The Leica/Wild GIF10 data logger,
 The Leica TC 605/805/905 Series Total Station,
 The Leica TCR 303/305/307 Series Total Station,
 The Nikon DTM400 Series Total Station,
 The Nikon NPL300/350/500/700 Series Total Station,
 The Pentax PCS300 Series Total Station,
 The Sokkia SET2C/SET3C Series Total Station,
 The Sokkia SET2100/SET3100/SET4100 Series Total Station,
 The Sokkia SET2110/SET3110/SET4110 Series Total Station,
 The Sokkia SET300, SET500, SET600 Total Station,
 The Topcon GTS200/210 Series Total Station,
 The Topcon GTS500/700 Series Total Station.
 The currently supported Total Stations and/or Electronic Loggers are : The Psion Organiser using the “HandiData Solutions Booker Ver 5.1” software,
General CAD Construction/Editing
 Plot all, or selected Points from the current Coordinate File
 Display and Name Points using a variety of builtin symbols, Sizes and/or Colours
 Construct/Edit Lines using various Line Styles, Thicknesses and/or Colours
 Construct/Edit Arcs and Circles using various Line Styles, Thicknesses and/or Colours
 Write/Edit Text Items using various Fonts, orientations, sizes and Colours
 Display Contours created in the SURPAC Contour CAD programme
 Display Centre Line Data from the SURPAC Horizontal Alignment programme
 Auto Hatch closed polygons using a variety of Hatch Styles
 Import Graphic Images (BMP, JPEG, GIF, ICO, WMF or EMF formats)
 Create Graphic Image of Sheet, or portion of the Sheet (BMP format)
 Display/Plot the Sheet at any Orientation, or Scale
 Auto Display Grid Mesh and/or North Point
 Using simple mouse or keyboard commands, the onscreen view of a CAD Sheet may be :
 Zoomed Up,
 Zoomed Down,
 Zoomed to a defined window,
 Zoomed to the defined Plotting scale,
 Zoomed to a User defined scale,
 Rotated positively or negatively,
 Panning or scrolling the display.
 Use various drawing Construction/Edit functions such as : Line Bisect,
 Line Dimension,
 Line Generate (using Polar Data),
 Line Intersect,
 Line Logical draw,
 Line Replicate,
 Line Sketch,
 Line Trim/Snap,
 Line Subdivide,
 Draw Arrows, Rectangles, Arcs or Circles
 Auto Display Line Direction and/or Distance,
 Calculate Areas by auto Line location or Point definition.
 Use various Text Writing/Editing functions, such as :
 Write a Text Item at any Font, Direction, Size, WTH ratio or Colour
 Dynamic Copy Text Items
 Dynamic Move Text Items
 Dynamic ReSize and ReOrient Text Items
 Edit or Delete existing Text Items
 Import Text Items from an ASCII File
 Use various Graphic Editing functions, such as :
 Import Graphic Images (BMP, JPEG, GIF, ICO, WMF or EMF formats)
 Create Graphic Image of Sheet, or portion of the Sheet (BMP format)
 Flip an Image (Horizontal, Vertical or both)
 Set Images to be in front of, or behind, drawing information
 Move an Image
 ReSize an Image
 Shift an Image
 Transform an Image (to fit current System position and size)
 Use a Transformed Image to Digitize Points and Lines
 Adjust Image Brightness and/or Contrast
 Use the SURPAC “Frame” function to :
 Copy defined a block of Data from Position 1 to Position 2, or Sheet 1 to Sheet 2
 Move a defined block of Data from Position 1 to Position 2
 Delete a defined block of Line/Text data
 Align a defined block of Text Items (Left/ Centre/ Right Justify, plus horizontal spacing)
 Rotate a defined block of Data
 Zoom Up, or Zoom Down, a defined block of Data
 Store and recall Data Blocks from disk for repeated Sheet application
 Import Line, Arc, Circle, Hatch and Text data from DXF Files
 Import Line, Arc, Circle, Hatch and Text data from other SURPAC CAD Files
 Import Line, Arc, Circle, Hatch and Text data from TopoCAD CAD/GIS Files
 Import Spline Contours and Contour Labelling
 Print Sheet to A0 – A4 Printer (Inkjet or Pen)
 Create a DXF file of Sheet data
 Create an HPGL file of Sheet data
Joins (Sides)
 Using 2D [Y, X] values, providing [Horizontal Direction & Distance]
 Using 3D [Y, X, Z] values, providing [Horizontal Direction & Distance plus Vertical Angle & Height Difference]
 Calculations may be in Normal, Radial or Sequential Join mode.
Polars
 Manual Input, or direct reduction from a SURPAC Observation File
 Plane Data Calculations :
 2D [Hor. Direction & Distance] providing [Y, X] values
 3D [Hor. Direction, Slope Distance & Vertical angle] providing [Y, X, Z] values
 Field Data Calculations :
 2D [Oriented Direction, Reduced Distance] providing [Y, X] values
 3D [Oriented Direction, Reduced Distance & Height Diff] providing [Y, X, Z] values
 Each SetUp in the defined Observation File is oriented using one or more orientation observations, and the T t corrections are applied. Distances are reduced for Scale Enlargement, Sea Level, Projection Factor and Slope. Vertical Angles are corrected for Curvature and Refraction.
 Calculation may be in Normal, Radial or Sequential Polar mode
Reverse Polars
Calculate an unknown SetUp Point [Y, X, Z] by observing to one, or more, distant known Points (such as Trig. Stations) and observing and measuring to a close known Point. Data are extracted from a User defined SURPAC Observation File.
Two Sides and the Included Angle
Calculate and check an unknown SetUp Point [Y, X, Z] by observing and measuring to two known Points. Data are extracted from a User defined SURPAC Observation File.
Intersections
 Intersection of a new Point by “Direction and Direction” from two known PointsIntersection of a new Point by “Direction and Direction” from two known Points
 Trilateration of a new Point by Distance and Distance” from two known Points
 Intersection of a new Point by “Direction and Distance” from two known Points
 Calculate the Tangent Point from a Point to a defined Circle
 Calculate Circular Curve information from given data
 Fit a Circular Curve through 3 defined Points
Area Calculations
 Calculate Area and Data from CoordinatesCalculate Area and Data from Coordinates
 Calculate Area from Coordinates with Coordinate checking from entered Polar data
 Calculate Area from entered Polar data, without Coordinate checking
 Calculate two new Points to create a defined fixed Area
 Calculate a new Point using a given Pivot Point and a defined fixed Area
Point OffLine Calculations
 Computes and displays the OffLine positions of all Points lying within a prescribed distance of a defined base line. Users may view the OffLine data from the line connecting two terminals, or from a Least Squares Line of Best Fit that, uses all Points located to determine the fit.Computes and displays the OffLine positions of all Points lying within a prescribed distance of a defined base line. Users may view the OffLine data from the line connecting two terminals, or from a Least Squares Line of Best Fit that, uses all Points located to determine the fit.
 Existing Points may be recomputed at their OnLine positions, or new Points maybe computed a these positions and the original Points maintained.
Road Apex Calculations
[Y, X] values for a new Point are computed at a User defined Road Apex position. Input requirements are the left and right Road Widths and their Directions.
Line Running and Adjusting
[Y, X] values of Points are calculated along a defined base line. The base line is determined by its User defined terminal Points. Line distances between new Points may be singular or repeated. Line misclosure data is displayed after all data are entered.
Splay point Calculations
[Y, X] values for two new Points are computed at the defined Splay positions, one either side of the Apex Point. Input requirements are the left and right Road Directions and the Splay Distance.
Data Traverse Calculations
Calculates and adjusts a simple Traverse using plane data. The programme is designed for use in calculating Point coordinates by means of starting from a known Point on a General Plan (for example) then using the plan Directions and Distances to compute traverse legs through a series of Points whose coordinate are required. The last leg used must close onto the first, or another, known Point. T3 different modes of adjustment are available to the User.
Field Traverse Calculations
 Calculates and adjusts a series of Traverse Points, using adjusted data extracted from a User defined SURPAC Observation File. Calculates and adjusts a series of Traverse Points, using adjusted data extracted from a User defined SURPAC Observation File.
 Each SetUp in the Traverse is oriented using one, or more, interior and/or exterior orientations. The T t corrections are also applied.
 Traverse Distances are reduced for Scale Enlargement, Sea Level, Projection Factor and Slope. Vertical Angles are corrected for Curvature and Refraction.
 If observed, the mean of forward and back distances and vertical height differences are used.
 Traverse may be 2D (Y, X) or 3D (Y, X, Z).
 Three adjustment alternatives are offered to adjust the Traverse misclosure.
 The SURPAC Planimetric Least Squares Adjustment programme may also be used for computing Traverses.
Printing a Coordinate/Peg File
 Coordinate File information is sent to the Printer. For Cadastral Surveys, the output may be organized by Category (Points Placed, Points Found etc.), or the list may be a simple alphanumeric one.Coordinate File information is sent to the Printer. For Cadastral Surveys, the output may be organized by Category (Points Placed, Points Found etc.), or the list may be a simple alphanumeric one.
 Various other options exist which allow for selected subsets of the list to be printed.
Printing Setting Out Sheets
 Setting Out and/or Checking Sheets may be generated using either A4, or A5 format.Setting Out and/or Checking Sheets may be generated using either A4, or A5 format.
 Setting Out data may be derived from either the current Coordinate file, or from a User defined Horizontal Alignment file (Centre Line file).
 Setting out format may be in horizontal order, within a specified radius, or Line Running pages may be generated between Point terminals.
 Checking Sheets may automatically be linked to Coordinate file data to provide a list of [dY, dX] values between theoretical values and as observed values.
Basic Coordinate/Distance/Area Conversions
 Carries out various standard Conversions using either built in, or User defined factors. Carries out various standard Conversions using either built in, or User defined factors.
 Distances, Coordinates and/or Areas may be converted.
 For coordinate data, transformed Points maybe saved in a Coordinate file, or in ASCII file format.
Transforming Gauss Conform to/from Geographical values
 This set of Transformation programmes supports the following Systems and/or Ellipsoids :
 Various Southern African “Lo” Systems using the Clarke 1880 (Modified) Ellipsoid
 South African “WG” System using the WGS 84 Ellipsoid
 Namibian “Bessel” System using the Bessel 1841 Ellipsoid (GL Metres and Int. Metres)
 U.K. National Grid System, OSGB36, using the Airy 1830 Ellipsoid
 U.K. National GPS Network, ETRS89, using the WGS 84 (GRS80) Ellipsoid
 Irish National Grid using the Airy 1830 (Modified) Ellipsoid
 Universal Transverse Mercator, U.T.M., using Various Ellipsoids
 Geographical [Latitude, Longitude] to Transverse Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) transformations
 Transverse Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) to Geographical [Latitude, Longitude] transformations
 Transverse Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) System 1 to System 2 (Belt 1 to Belt 2) transformations
 Transverse Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) System to U.T.M. [E, N] Zone transformations
 U.T.M. [E, N] Zone to Transverse Mercator [Y, X] (or [E, N]) System transformations
 U.T.M. [E, N] Zone 1 to U.T.M. [E, N] Zone 2 transformations.
Standard Helmert Transformations
 This programme is capable of handling any planar, orthogonal System to System transformation.
 The programme uses a Parametric nonweighted (1st Order) Least Squares adjustment technique. Developed inhouse, this technique uses the
 rigorous least squares adjustment of residuals determined from the weighted centres of gravity of the two sets of Control Points.
 The minimum requirement is two common points coordinate in both systems.
 For transformations (or superpositions) with more than two common points, the transforming parameters are determined by the means of a
 Least Squares best fit.
 The transformation is always carried out from some other system, to the system as defined by the current Coordinate File
 The Common Point data from which the transformation is being carried out, may be manually entered, or read from another Coordinate File
 There are a number of Options that may be made once a system to system transformation has been made, viz :
 You may DELETE a common point, or a number of common points from the transformation and then rerun the transformation.
 You may ADD a further common point, or a number of further common points, to the transformation and then rerun the transformation.
 You may EDIT any point in the transformation by reentering its coordinates and then rerun the transformation.
 The transforming parameters of a previous transformation may be entered directly to allow immediate transformation of noncommon points. These values may be entered manually, or read from an ASCII file. This file may be regenerated immediately after carrying out a transformation.
 Once correct, the transformation of noncommon points may be carried out. These transformed points may be stored in the current Coordinate file.
Locate and Mean Point Groups in a Coordinate File
 A Point Group is defined as two, or more, Points in a Coordinate File that lie within a prescribed distance of one another. The programme will search through the current Coordinate File, using an alphanumeric order, looking for Points that create a Point Group. A Point Group can consist of between 2 to 14 Points in size.
 This programme incorporates a number of useful functions. For example :
 It may be used to search for and Display the Values of a Point that may have been surveyed two, or more, times and Saved in the Coordinate File under different Names.
 It may be used to Mean all the Points in a Point Group and then save these meaned values in the Coordinate File, using a default Name or a User entered Name.
 It may be used to Adopt either the first, or the second located Point in a Point Group and then save this Point’s values in the Coordinate File , using a default Name or a User entered Name.
 It may be used to Delete all Points in a Point Group, other than the Point selected as the required Point representing the Point Group.
Point Comparisons using Different Coordinate Files

This programme provides the facility of comparing any two SURPAC Coordinate Files.

The displayed programme Screen makes allowance for defining the two required files and for selecting the mode to be used for comparing the two files.

The Files may be compared by using the Point Names to identify common Points. When a matching Point is found, the programme will compare the coordinates of the Point in each of the two Files and calculate the polar values derived from the coordinate differences (if any).

The Files may also be compared by matching coordinates . You must set a logical limit within which the programme must search for a matching Point. For each Point in File No.1, the programme will search for the closest Point, within the defined search radius, in File No. 2. When a Point is found, the programme will calculate the polar values derived from the coordinate differences of the two Points (if any).
Single Point Fixing (Resections, Intersections and Trilaterations)
 The mathematical principle of this programme is the rigorous Least Squares adjustment by the variation of coordinates. The “Schreiber’s Elimination” technique is used to minimize the variancecovariance matrix.
 This programme will handle any type of single Point fix using any combination of Triangulation and/or Trilateration, as well as a Height determination for the Free point, such as :
 Point Trilateration [Y, X], or [E, N]
 Point Resection [Y, X], or [E, N]
 Point Resection [Y, X, Z], or [E, N, H]
 Point Resection [Z], or [H]
 Point Intersection [Y, X], or [E, N]
 Point Intersection [Y, X, Z], or [E, N, H]
 Point Intersection [Z], or [H]
 The current Coordinate File is used to extract the coordinates of the User defined Fixed Points used in the determination of the [Y, X](or [E, N] ) coordinates (and/or the Height, if required), of the new Point.
 The Observation data (Horizontal angles, Distances, Vertical angles, Target heights and Instrument heights) are extracted from a User defined General Observation File.
 The programme allows for the abstracting and combining of Multiple Arcs . Up to 8 Arcs (or faces) are allowed for a given Setup. Each arc may include up to 30 sighted points. The observations are displayed showing the abstracting in the conventional survey manner, including the Mean and the Standard Deviation. The meaned values of the Horizontal angles, the Vertical angles and Distances are used in the Single Point Fix calculation.
 For a Trilateration calculation, the programme will use any combination of Forward and/or Backward measured Distances to compute the new Point. The minimum number of distances is 3. The programme will search through the General Observation File , or defined portion of the File and extract all measured lines to and/or from, the new Point. All Distances will then be reduced and used to carry out a simultaneous Least Squares fix and adjustment of the Point’s [Y, X] (or [E, N]) ordinates.
 The Network File Editor includes an “Active” column, which can be set to Active or NonActive, for all the data lines displayed for a Single Point Fix calculation.
 A Data Line that is defined as Active is available and will be used in the calculation of the new Point. An Active Data Line will have a Green Tick displayed in its “Active” column.
 A Data Line defined as NonActive is data that exists, but which will not be used for the current calculation. A NonActive Data Line will have a Red Cross displayed in its “Active” column, and the Observation information will be displayed in red Italic text. A Data Line’s Active status can be changed using a single mouse click.
 The output, of a calculation consists of :
 the final coordinates of the new Point,
 the orientation correction, in the case of a resection,
 a comparison of observed quantities with final quantities and a list of observational residuals,
 the standard deviation of unit weight for the observation set,
 the standard errorellipse parameters,
 a list of [Y, X](or [E, N] ) ordinate axis cuts for each ray,
 a list of input data for the height fix (if required) and the computed height differences along with their adjustments and final values.